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Centropyge (common name: dwarf angelfish) is a genus of marine angelfishes. The genus is the largest within the Pomacanthid family, comprising over 30 described species. Species in this group do not exceed 15 cm (approximately six inches) in length and live in haremic structures with one dominant male and multiple females. Although it is hard to identify their gender; females are often shorter and more round finned (which is more obvious when looking at a group of specimens). Like many other reef fish and all marine angelfish, species in this genus are protogynous hermaphrodites, meaning that they start their adult lives as females and the dominant individual in a group can change to a male within days. A reversal of this sex change is possible if the social status of the individual changes, it is however a process that requires much more time (weeks to months).
Marine angelfish are perciform fish of the family Pomacanthidae. They are found on shallow reefs in the tropical Atlantic, Indian, and mostly western Pacific oceans. The family contains seven genera and approximately 86 species. They should not be confused with the freshwater angelfish, tropical cichlids of the Amazon Basin.
With their bright colours and deep, laterally compressed bodies, marine angelfishes are some of the more conspicuous residents of the reef. They most closely resemble the butterfly fishes, a related family of similarly showy reef fish. Marine angelfish are distinguished from butterfly fish by the presence of strong preopercle spines (part of the gill covers) in the former. This feature also explains the family name Pomacanthidae; from the Greek πομα, poma meaning "cover" and ακάνθα, akantha meaning "thorn".
Many species of marine angelfishes have streamer-like extensions of the soft dorsal and anal fins. The fish have small mouths, relatively large pectoral fins and rounded to lunate tail fins. The largest species, the gray angelfish, Pomacanthus arcuatus, may reach a length of 60 cm (24 in); at the other extreme, members of the genus Centropyge do not exceed 15 cm (5.9 in). A length of 20 to 30 cm (7.9 to 11.8 in) is average for the rest of the family. The smaller species are popular amongst aquarists, whereas the largest species are occasionally sought as a food fish; however, there have been reports of ciguatera poisoning as a result of eating marine angelfish.
The Queen angelfish, grows to be 45 cm (18 in). With neon blue and yellow scales, with iridescent purple and orange markings, surprisingly it is not conspicuous, and actually hides very well, and is very shy...
Anthias is a genus of colourful fishes in the subfamily Anthiinae. Most species are found at deep reefs in the tropical and subtropical Atlantic, often well below depths reachable to a scuba diver. A single species, A. noeli, is found at deep reefs in the East Pacific.
They are red, pink, orange, or yellow, and the largest species reach 29 cm (11 in) in length. They typically occur in groups that feed on zooplankton.
They are characterized in part by a broken or absent lateral line. The largest species reach around 10 centimeters in maximum length.
Some basslets are colorful and are kept in marine aquaria.
There are two genera:
A number of other species may be called "basslets", in particular members of Serranidae, where they may be called "fairy basslets".
Ephippidae is a family containing the spadefishes, with about eight genera and a total of 20 marine species. The most well-known species are probably those in the reef-dwelling genus Platax, the batfishes, which are kept as aquarium fish. They are spade-shaped and laterally compressed, and have very symmetrical, triangular dorsal and anal fins. They are shiny silver with areas of yellow and vertical brown or black banding. The eyes are often located in one of the vertical bands as a method of camouflage. Scuba divers sometimes mistake them for angelfish, which are similar in shape, but not closely related. Other genera in the family are characterized by long, trailing, pointed dorsal and anal fins. Most species feed primarily on algae and small invertebrates.
Some spadefishes are popular sport fishing catches. The Atlantic spadefish (Chaetodipterus faber), for example, is an attractive black and white zebra-striped fish common just offshore in the southeastern United States and Caribbean. They are favorites because they put up a fight as they are reeled in. Spadefish are generally considered to be an overfished group. Most of the individuals caught are small, young, and not near the maximum size recorded for their species.
The batfish Platax pinnatus may play the role of a critical functional group in the Great Barrier Reef by eating seaweed that other herbivorous fishes such as parrotfish and surgeonfish will not touch. Overgrowth of seaweed among corals occurs as a result of overfishing of large fish species and inhibits the ability of coral to support life.
The common name blenny (deriving from the Greek ἡ βλέννα and τό βλέννος, mucus, slime) is ambiguous at best, as it has been applied to several families of perciform marine, brackish, and some freshwater fishes all sharing similar morphology and behaviour. Six families are considered "true blennies", all grouped together under the suborder Blennioidei; its members are referred to as blennioids. About 833 species are found in 130 genera within the suborder.
Blennioids are generally small fish, with elongated bodies (some almost eel-like), and relatively large eyes and mouths. Their dorsal fins are often continuous and long; the pelvic fins typically have a single embedded spine and are short and slender, situated before the pectoral fins. The tail fin is rounded. The blunt heads of blennioids often possess elaborate whisker-like structures called cirri. As generally benthic fish, blennioids spend much of their time on or near the sea floor; many are reclusive and may burrow in sandy substrates or inhabit crevices in reefs, the lower stretches of rivers, or even empty mollusc shells.
The six "true blenny" families are: